Sustainable aquaculture and aquatic resources management

RSS Fish and Shellfish Immunology

ScienceDirect RSS

Latest posts

Immunological interactions between Piscine orthoreovirus and Salmonid alphavirus infections in Atlantic salmon

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Magnus Vikan Røsæg, Morten Lund, Ingvild Berg Nyman, Turhan Markussen, Vidar Aspehaug, Hilde Sindre, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) and pancreas disease (PD) cause substantial losses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. The respective causative agents, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) and Salmonid alphavirus (SAV), are widespread and often concurrently present in farmed salmon. An experimental infection in Atlantic salmon was conducted to study the interaction between the two viruses, including the immunological mechanisms involved. The co-infected fish were infected with PRV four or ten weeks before they were infected with SAV. The SAV RNA level and the PD specific lesions were significantly lower in co-infected groups compared to the group infected by only SAV. The expression profiles of a panel of innate antiviral response genes and the plasma SAV neutralization titers were examined. The innate antiviral response genes were in general upregulated for at least ten weeks after the primary PRV infection. Plasma from co-infected fish had lower SAV neutralizing titers compared to the controls infected with only SAV. Plasma from some individuals infected with only PRV neutralized SAV, but heat treatment removed this effect. Field studies of co-infected fish populations indicated a negative correlation between the two viruses in randomly sampled apparently healthy fish, in line with the experimental findings, but a positive correlation in moribund or dead fish. The results indicate that the innate antiviral response induced by PRV may temporary protect against a secondary SAV infection.





Gill structural integrity changes in fish deficient or excessive in dietary isoleucine: Towards the modulation of tight junction protein, inflammation, apoptosis and antioxidant defense via NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling pathways

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: April 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 63

Author(s): Lin Feng, Lu Gan, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Ling Tang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou

This study firstly aimed to test the impact of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on tight junction protein, inflammation, apoptosis, antioxidant defense and related signaling molecule gene expression in the gill of fish. Young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (weighing 256.8 ± 3.5 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of Ile, namely, 3.8, 6.6, 9.3, 12.5, 15.2 and 18.5 g/kg diet for 8 weeks. The results firstly revealed that Ile deficiency down-regulated the mRNA expressions of claudin-3, claudin-b, claudin-c, occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and up-regulated the mRNA expression of claudin-12, which led to the intercellular structure damage of fish gill. These effects were partially ascribed to the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] mRNA expressions that referring to up-regulated nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65) mRNA expression and down-regulated inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) mRNA expression, and the down-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)] mRNA expressions that referring to the down-regulated TOR and S6K1 mRNA expression. Interestingly, no change in claudin 15 mRNA level was observed among every treatment. At the same time, the results firstly indicated that Ile deficiency also resulted in the cellular structure damage of fish gill: (1) DNA fragmentation partially due to the up-regulation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 mRNA expression; (2) increase in protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS contents, which may be partially attributed to the impaired antioxidant defense [indicated by decreased glutathione (GSH) level and depressed anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (a-HR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities] that referring to the down-regulation of corresponding antioxidant enzyme mRNA expressions and the related signaling molecules Nrf2 mRNA expression. Ile excess caused similar negative effects that observed in Ile-deficient group, whereas these negative effects were reversed with appropriate Ile supplementation. In conclusion, our results indicated that Ile deficiency or excess disrupted the structural integrity of fish gill, partially due to the trigger of apoptosis, the impairment of antioxidant defense, and the regulation of tight junction protein, inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis-related, antioxidant enzymes and related signaling molecules mRNA expressions in the fish gill.





Current applications, selection, and possible mechanisms of actions of synbiotics in improving the growth and health status in aquaculture: A review

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Truong-Giang Huynh, Ya-Li Shiu, Thanh-Phuong Nguyen, Quoc-Phu Truong, Jiann-Chu Chen, Chun-Hung Liu

Synbiotics, a conjunction between prebiotics and probiotics, have been used in aquaculture for over 10 years. However, the mechanisms of how synbiotics work as growth and immunity promoters are far from being unraveled. Here, we show that a prebiotic as part of a synbiotic is hydrolyzed to mono- or disaccharides as the sole carbon source with diverse mechanisms, thereby increasing biomass and colonization that is established by specific crosstalk between probiotic bacteria and the surface of intestinal epithelial cells of the host. Synbiotics may indirectly and directly promote the growth of aquatic animals through releasing extracellular bacterial enzymes and bioactive products from synbiotic metabolic processes. These compounds may activate precursors of digestive enzymes of the host and augment the nutritional absorptive ability that contributes to the efficacy of food utilization. In fish immune systems, synbiotics cause intestinal epithelial cells to secrete cytokines which modulate immune functional cells as of dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells, and induce the ability of lipopolysaccharides to trigger tumor necrosis factor-α and Toll-like receptor 2 gene transcription leading to increased respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis, and nitric oxide production. In shellfish, synbiotics stimulate the proliferation and degranulation of hemocytes of shrimp due to the presence of bacterial cell walls. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns are subsequently recognized and bound by specific pattern-recognition proteins, triggering melanization and phagocytosis processes.





Fatty acid binding protein regulate antimicrobial function via Toll signaling in Chinese mitten crab

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: April 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 63

Author(s): Shichuang Wang, Youting Zhu, Xuejie Li, Qun Wang, Jiayao Li, Weiwei Li

Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are members of the lipid binding protein superfamily and play crucial role in fatty acid transport and lipid metabolism. In macrophages, Adipocyte-type FABP is an important mediator of inflammation. However, the immune functions of FABPs in invertebrates are not well understood; here, we obtained the gene structure of Eriocheir sinensis FABP 3 and FABP 9 (EsFABP 3 and EsFABP 9), and compared with EsFABP 10. The mRNA expression profiles show that all three FABPs were significantly up-regulated in hemocytes after being challenged with bacteria. Of the three, EsFABP 3 was the most stable and also the most highly up-regulated. Further studies showed that knockdown of EsFABP 3 led to higher bacterial counts in the hemocyte culture medium and a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of some antimicrobial peptides following bacterial stimulation. Moreover, a subcellular study demonstrated that EsFABP 3 can affect nuclear translocation of the dorsal after Gram-positive bacterial stimulation in hemocytes. These findings support the notion that EsFABP 3 could inhibit bacterial proliferation by regulating antimicrobial peptides expression via the Toll signaling pathway.





Transcriptome analysis of Ruditapes philippinarum hepatopancreas provides insights into immune signaling pathways under Vibrio anguillarum infection

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Yipeng Ren, Junli Xue, Huanhuan Yang, Baoping Pan, Wenjun Bu

The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is one of the most economically important aquatic clams that are harvested on a large scale by the mariculture industry in China. However, increasing reports of bacterial pathogenic diseases have had a negative effect on the aquaculture industry of R. philippinarum. In the present study, the two transcriptome libraries of untreated (termed H) and challenged Vibrio anguillarum (termed HV) hepatopancreas were constructed and sequenced from Manila clam using an Illumina-based paired-end sequencing platform. In total, 75,302,886 and 66,578,976 high-quality clean reads were assembled from 101,080,746 and 99,673,538 raw data points from the two transcriptome libraries described above, respectively. Furthermore, 156,116 unigenes were generated from 210,685 transcripts, with an N50 length of 1125 bp, and from the annotated SwissProt, NR, NT, KO, GO, KOG and KEGG databases. Moreover, a total of 4071 differentially expressed unigenes (HV vs H) were detected, including 903 up-regulated and 3168 down-regulated genes. Among these differentially expressed unigenes, 226 unigenes were annotated using KEGG annotation in 16 immune-related signaling pathways, including Toll-like receptor, NF-kappa B, MAPK, NOD-like receptor, RIG-I-like receptor, and the TNF and chemokine signaling pathways. Finally, 20,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 214,430 potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected from the H and HV transcriptome libraries. In conclusion, these studies identified many candidate immune-related genes and signaling pathways and conducted a comparative analysis of the differentially expressed unigenes from Manila clam hepatopancreas in response to V. anguillarum stimulation. These data laid the foundation for studying the innate immune systems and defense mechanisms in R. philippinarum.





Effects of ammonia-N stress on metabolic and immune function via the neuroendocrine system in Litopenaeus vannamei

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Yanting Cui, Xianyun Ren, Jian Li, Qianqian Zhai, Yanyan Feng, Yang Xu, Li Ma

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunological responses, such as phenoloxidase (PO), antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, and metabolic variables, such as oxyhemocyanin, lactate, and glucose levels, of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and determine the effects of the eyestalk hormone on the metabolic and immune functions of unilateral eyestalk-ablated L. vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 10 mg/L. The actual concentrations of the control and test solutions were 0.04, 2.77, 6.01, 8.30, and 11.36 mg/L for ammonia-N and 0.01, 0.15, 0.32, 0.44, and 0.60 mg/L for NH3-N (unionized ammonia). The results showed a significant decrease in the PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities in the plasma as well as a significant increase in the glucose and lactate levels and decreased oxyhemocyanin levels in the hemolymph of L. vannamei exposed to elevated ammonia-N levels. These findings indicated that L. vannamei exposed to ammonia-N might demonstrate weakened metabolic and immunological responses. Moreover, eyestalk removal caused a dramatic decrease in PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, which indicated that the eyestalk hormone in L. vannamei exhibited a higher immune response due to the induction of protective mechanisms against ammonia-N stress. Eyestalk removal also caused a dramatic decrease in glucose and lactate levels, suggesting that the eyestalk hormone is involved in glucose metabolism to meet the energy requirements under ammonia-N stress conditions.





The dietary replacement of marine ingredients by terrestrial animal and plant alternatives modulates the antiviral immune response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Albert Caballero-Solares, Jennifer .R. Hall, Xi Xue, Khalil Eslamloo, Richard G. Taylor, Christopher C. Parrish, Matthew L. Rise

The effects of replacing marine ingredients by terrestrial ingredients on the health of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are poorly understood. During a 14-week trial, Atlantic salmon fed a fish meal-fish oil based diet (MAR) showed similar growth performance to others fed a plant protein/vegetable oil based diet (VEG), whereas poorer performance was observed in those fed an animal by-product meal/vegetable oil based diet (ABP). At the end of the trial, salmon were injected with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or the viral mimic polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC) and sampled for head kidney RNA after 24 h. The levels of 27 immune-related transcripts, and of 5 others involved in eicosanoid synthesis (including paralogues in both cases) were measured in the head kidney of the salmon using qPCR. All of the assayed immune-related genes and cox2 were pIC-induced, while the other eicosanoid synthesis-related genes were pIC-repressed. Linear regression was used to establish correlations between different immune transcripts, elucidating the cascade of responses to pIC and specialization among paralogues. Regarding the effect of diet on the antiviral immune response, pIC-treated fish fed diets ABP and VEG showed higher transcript levels of tlr3, irf1b, stat1a, isg15b, and gig1 compared to those fed diet MAR. We infer that the observed dietary immunomodulation could be due to the lower proportion of arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in diets ABP and VEG. Furthermore, our results suggest a major role of dietary ARA in Atlantic salmon immunity, as low ARA proportion in diet VEG coincided with the highest pIC-induction of some immune transcripts (tlr7, stat1c, mxb, and gig1) and the lowest levels of transcripts encoding eicosanoid-synthesizing enzymes (5loxa, 5loxb, and pgds). In contrast, the high ARA/EPA ratio of diet ABP appeared to favor increased expression of transcripts involved in the synthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids (5loxa and 5loxb) and chemotaxis (ccl19b). In conclusion, our findings show that nutritionally balanced plant-based diets may enhance the immune response of Atlantic salmon. Future studies should explore the possible advantages of plant-based diets in Atlantic salmon exposed to a viral infection.





Isolation and characterization of two glutathione S-transferases from freshwater bivalve Anodonta woodiana: Chronic effects of pentachlorophenol on gene expression profiles

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Qingchun Liu, Xiyu Shang, Yuhong Ma, Xichao Xia, Shipeng Xue, Chuanxiu Hua, Guian Liang, Lunguang Yao, Lianghong Guo

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) play a prominent role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. Our previous study showed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from pentachlorophenol (PCP) could cause an acute impact on freshwater bivalve Anodonta Woodiana, but its chronic toxicity remain unclear. In order to investigate the chronic effect of PCP, clams A. Woodiana were randomly grouped into PCP treated group in which animals were administrated with 13.9 μg/L concentrations of PCP, and control group those with similar volume dimethyl sulfoxide. In addition, two complete GST sequences were isolated from A. Woodianaa and respectively named AwGST1 and AwGST2. The full-length cDNA of AwGST1 was consisted of a 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of 132 bp, a 3′ UTR of 80 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 609 bp encoding a polypeptide of 203 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of AwGST2 contained a 5′ UTR of 57 bp, a 3′ UTR of 291 bp and an ORF of 678 bp encoding a polypeptide of 226 amino acids. The constitutive expression levels of AwGST1 and AwGST2 were examined in different tissues including foot, mantle, adductor muscle, heart, hepatopancreas, hemocytes and gill. Administration of PCP could result in a significant increase of AwGST1 and AwGST2 expression in the hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes. In the hepatopancreas, AwGST1 mRNA levels of PCP treated group increased more than 28.73% at day 1, then 70.37% (P < 0.05) at day 3, reach to 6.64 times (P < 0.01) at day 15 in contrasted with that of control group. AwGST2 increased more 18.18%, 82.88% (P < 0.05) and 2.43 times (P < 0.01) at day 1, 3 and 15, respectively. In the gill, AwGST1 expression showed a significant up-regulation in the PCP treated group during experiment observed compared with that of control group, mRNA level of AwGST2 increased more than 1.44 times (P < 0.05). In addition, expressions of AwGST1 and AwGST2 were significantly induced after PCP treatment in the hemocytes. These results indicated that up-regulations of AwGST1 and AwGST2 expression in bivalve A. woodiana are contribute to against oxidative stress derived from PCP treatment during experiment observed.





Peritoneal bacterial infection repressed the expression of IL17D in Siberia sturgeon a chondrostean fish in the early immune response

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Hua Zhu, Ruxing Song, Xiaowen Wang, Hongxia Hu, Zuobing Zhang

IL17s are pro-inflammatory cytokines that play important roles in host fighting against extracellular bacteria and auto-immune and allergic diseases. IL17D is believed to be the most ancient IL17 member and its functions are far from clarity. Although it has been found in invertebrates, jawless fish, teleosts, and tetrapods, it has not been described in chondrostean fish. Moreover, there are discrepancies concerning its expression pattern in these animals. In this study, we cloned and characterized the cDNA of il17d in Siberia sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), a chondrostean fish and commercially important species in aquaculture. The sturgeon il17d cDNA encodes a deduced protein of 210aa. The classical characteristics of IL17, such as IL17 domain, cysteine and serine residues importantly for cystine-knot formation, and signal peptide, were observed in sturgeon IL17D. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple alignment suggest it is a counterpart of mammalian IL17D. However, in vivo studies demonstrated that the expression pattern of sturgeon il17d mRNA is different from that of other teleosts and jawless fish, and in most cases its expression was down-regulated at the early time points and gradually increasing at late time points when sturgeon were challenged with bacteria (Aernomas hydrophila or Staphylococcus aureus). The In vitro study by using primary spleen cells stimulated with polyI:C revealed a similar expression pattern to that in vivo studies, while the stimulation with β-glucan or LPS, which normally induced expression of il17d mRNA in target cells in vitro in other animals, did not show apparent changes in the expression of il17d mRNA. The results of present study indicated sturgeon IL17D may possess some different characteristics from its counterparts of other fish and invertebrates in the immune response, and may contribute to the understanding of IL17D functions in evolution as well as the potential use in sturgeon aquaculture.





Engineered nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TIO2): Uptake and biological effects in a sea bass cell line

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: April 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 63

Author(s): S. Picchietti, C. Bernini, V. Stocchi, A.R. Taddei, R. Meschini, A.M. Fausto, L. Rocco, F. Buonocore, D. Cervia, G. Scapigliati

With the rapid development of nanotechnology there has been a corresponding increase in the application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in various consumer and industrial products, consequently their potential health hazards and environmental effects are considered an aspect of great concern. In the present study, in order to assess the impact of TiO2-NPs in the marine environment, the biological effects of TiO2-NPs on a sea bass cell line (DLEC) were investigated. Cells were exposed for 24 h to different concentrations of TiO2-NPs (1, 8, 40, 200 and 1000 μg/ml) or co-exposed with CdCl2 (Cd). The effects of UV light irradiation were also investigated in cells treated with TiO2-NPs and/or Cd. The internalization of TiO2-NPs and the morphological cell modifications induced by the treatments were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, this latter coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for particle element detection. In addition, the effects of controlled exposures were studied evaluating the cytotoxicity, the DNA damage and the expression of inflammatory genes. Our study indicates that TiO2-NPs were localized on the cell surface mainly as agglomerates revealed by EDS analysis and that they were uptaken by the cells inducing morphological changes. Photoactivation of TiO2-NPs and/or co-exposure with Cd affects ATP levels and it contributes to induce acute cellular toxicity in DLEC cells dependent on Ti concentration. The inflammatory potential and the DNA damage, this latter displayed through a caspase-3 independent apoptotic process, were also demonstrated. Overall our data suggest that the interaction of TiO2-NPs with marine water contaminants, such as cadmium, and the UV irradiation, may be an additional threat to marine organisms.





Dietary supplementation with rutin has pro-/anti-inflammatory effects in the liver of juvenile GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Yao Zheng, Zhixiang Zhao, Limin Fan, Shunlong Meng, Chao Song, Liping Qiu, Pao Xu, Jiazhang Chen

Dietary supplementation with rutin may have some pharmacological qualities including anti-inflammatory effects. Kupffer cell activation resulted in increased transcription of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the pro- and anti-inflammatory activities in juvenile freshwater tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in response to 0.1 or 0.3 g/kg dietary supplementation of rutin. Results showed that hepatic IgM, anti-inflammatory-cytokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly decreased in groups treated with high doses of rutin. Hepatic IgM and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IFN-γ) transcripts were significantly decreased, whereas the transcripts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β were significantly decreased, whereas IL-8 was significantly increased. The number of Kupffer cells in rutin-treated groups was significantly decreased, and scanning electron micrographs showed that rutin enriched the number of gut microvilli and secretion pits. With the phenomena of cell apoptosis occurred in the rutin groups, the present study demonstrated that optimum levels of rutin may be beneficial but excessive level may cause liver impairment, which may be absorbed by the gut and then transported to the liver.





Molecular characterization and expression analysis of toll-like receptors 5 and 22 from natural triploid Carassius auratus

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Jie Zhang, Li Wang, Yanjing Zhao, Xianghui Kong, Fan Wu, Xianliang Zhao

Innate immunity, as the most primitive and universal host defense in fish, constitutes an efficient first line of defense to combat invading microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play essential roles in the innate immunity, and TLR5 and TLR22 are two important TLRs that can recognize flagellin and double stranded RNA (dsRNA), respectively. In this study, we identified and characterized two TLRs genes of Qihe crucian carp (Carassius auratus) (designated as CaTLR5 and CaTLR22). The full-length cDNA sequence of CaTLR5 was cloned with 2972 bp including a 140 bp 5’-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 183 bp 3′-UTR, and a 2649 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a deduced protein with 882 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of CaTLR22 was identified to be 3613 bp, consisting of a 228 bp 5′-UTR, a 547 bp 3′-UTR, and a 2838 bp ORF encoding a predicted protein of 945 amino acids. A typical TLR structure (an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular Toll/IL-1 receptor domain) was found in CaTLR5 and CaTLR22. For either CaTLR5 or CaTLR22 gene, the mRNA expression levels varied in the different periods during the early stages of development. It was suggested that expression changes of gene CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 at mRNA levels were involved in developmental regulation in the early stages, and it was postulated that CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 play the important roles in immune defense in the early development stages of fish. Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 were constitutively expressed in all eleven tissues examined, although the mRNA expression level varied considerably among the different tissues. Following exposure to polyI:C, flagellin, and Aeromonas hydrophila, CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 were up-regulated in different tissues, and it was suggested that CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 were involved in the immune response of Qihe crucian carp against pathogenic invasions. The present findings will provide the valuable information for understanding the structure, function, expression, and the immune defense process of CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 in Qihe crucian carp, and provide new insights for developing the new strategies of disease control to protect fish against pathogens infection.





Reduced expression of selective immune-related genes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) monocytes exposed to atrazine

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Karina Schreiner Kirsten, Raíssa Canova, Lucas de Figueiredo Soveral, Maria Tereza Friedrich, Rafael Frandoloso, Luiz Carlos Kreutz

The effect of atrazine (ATZ) and its metabolites on aquatic vertebrate species has been a matter of concern to researchers and environmentalist. In this study we exposed head kidney monocytes to sublethal concentrations of atrazine (1 and 10 μg/ml−1), corresponding to 1% and 10% of the LC50–96h, to evaluate the expression of immune-related genes central to immune stimulation. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, Mieloperoxidase and Mx genes were significantly reduced following 24 h exposure to both concentrations of ATZ. The mRNA levels of iRAK4 were reduced only at the higher ATZ concentration and the mRNA levels of IL-1β were not affected. The results reported here support our previous findings on the immunosuppressive effect of ATZ indicating its potential to interfere with the expression of immune-related genes, and strengthen the need to regulate ATZ usage aiming to preserve animal and human health.





Oral delivery of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis to grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): Induces immune responses and has no damage on liver and intestine function

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Zeli Tang, Hengchang Sun, TingJin Chen, Zhipeng Lin, Hongye Jiang, Xinyi Zhou, Cunbin Shi, Houjun Pan, Ouqin Chang, Pengli Ren, Jinyun Yu, Xuerong Li, Jin Xu, Yan Huang, Xinbing Yu

Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is a fish-borne trematode. Human can be infected by ingestion of C. sinensis metacercariae parasitized in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For induction of effective oral immune responses, spores of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) WB600 were utilized as vehicle to delivery CsCP (cysteine protease of C. sinensis) cooperated with CotC (B.s-CotC-CP), one of coat proteins, to the gastrointestinal tract. After routine culture of 8–12 h in LB medium, B. subtilis containing CotC-CsCP was transferred into the sporulation culture medium. SDS-PAGE, western blotting and the growth curve indicated that the best sporulation time of recombinant WB600 was 24–30 h at 37 °C with continuous shaking (250 rpm). Grass carp were fed with three levels of B.s-CotC-CP (1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108 CFU g−1) incorporated in the basal pellets diet. The commercial pellets or supplemented with spores just expressing CotC (1 × 107 CFU g−1) were served as control diet. Our results showed that grass carp orally immunized with the feed-based B.s-CotC-CP developed a strong specific immune response with significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of IgM in samples of serum, bile, mucus of surface and intestinal compared to the control groups. Abundant colonization spores expressing CsCP were found in hindgut that is conducive to absorption and presentation of antigen. Moreover, B. subtilis spores appeared to show no sign of toxicity or damage in grass carp. Our cercariae challenge experiments suggested that oral administration of spores expressing CsCP could develop an effective protection against C. sinensis in fish body. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the feed-based recombinant spores could trigger high levels of mucosal and humoral immunity, and would be a promising candidate vaccine against C. sinensis metacercariae formation in freshwater fish.





Identification of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) XBP1S as a primary member in ER stress

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Xiangqin Wang, Yichuan Mi, Bin Zhong, Huiling Mao, Yiqi Wan, Tao Zhang, Haizhou Wang, Chengyu Hu

X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a vital basic leucine zipper transcription factor for the related gene transcription in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, belongs to the CREB/ATF family. In mammals, XBP1S is the activated one of XBP1 isoform. In order to study the role of fish XBP1S, we cloned and identified the XBP1S (KU509247) from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (named CiXBP1S) by homologous cloning and RACE technique. The full length of CiXBP1S is 1694 bp along with 124 bp of 5′ UTR, 418 bp of 3′ UTR and the longest open reading frame (1152 bp) encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids with a well conserved DNA binding domain (BRLZ domain). CiXBP1S shares significant homology to zebrafish XBP1S (∼90%) at amino acid level. RT-PCR showed that the expression of CiXBP1S was ubiquitous in all tested grass carp tissues and was significantly up-regulated under the stimulation with tunicamycin (Tm) in CIK (C. idellus kidney) cells. To study the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation for XBP1 signaling pathway in fish, we cloned grass carp XBP1 promoter sequence. Its promoter is 1036 bp in length and divided into two distinct regions in which an ER stress response element (ERSE) exists in the proximal region. Meanwhile, grass carp ATF6 (CiATF6N) and CiXBP1S were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified by affinity chromatography with the Ni-NTA His-Bind resin. Gel mobility shift assay showed that CiATF6N and CiXBP1S had the high affinity with CiXBP1 promoter sequence in vitro. Co-transfection of pcDNA3.1-CiATF6 (or pcDNA3.1-CiXBP1S respectively) with pGL3-CiXBP1P2 (or pGL3-CiXBP1P1 respectively) into epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells showed that CiATF6 and CiXBP1S played a positive role in CiXBP1S transcription. CiXBP1S also had high affinity with CiGRP78 and CiGRP94 promoter sequences. In addition, recombinant plasmids of pGL3-CiGRP78P and pGL3-CiGRP94P were constructed and transiently co-transfected with pcDNA3.1-CiXBP1S (pcDN3.1-CiXBP1S-nBRLZ, respectively) into EPC cells. The result showed that CiXBP1S can activate CiGRP78 and CiGRP94 promoters.





Intestinal transcriptome modulation by functional diets in rainbow trout: A high-throughput sequencing appraisal to highlight GALT immunomodulation

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Ana Teresa Gonçalves, Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate

Functional ingredients such as pre- and probiotics are used in aquaculture to improve fish condition, modulating microbiota and promoting a healthy intestinal functioning. They also exert an active effect on the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stimulating the immune system. However, the molecular underpinnings of pre- and probiotics effect on intestinal mucosa are still unknown. This study investigated the intestinal mucosa transcriptome modulation when fish were fed functional diets and kept at different stocking densities. Juvenile rainbow trout were kept at low (LD-3Kgm-3) and high density (HD-40 kgm-3) and fed for 30 days functional diets with the prebiotic mannanoligosaccharide (PRE-0.6%), the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PRO-0.5%), the mixture of both (MIX) and a control diet (CTRL). Intestinal transcriptome was evaluated by high-throughput sequencing and blood plasma for biochemical parameters. Fish fed functional diets presented better condition regardless density, and that functional diets modulate intestinal transcriptome in different manner depending on the stocking density. At LD, fish from PRO presented stronger modulation with the majority of transcripts being down-regulated, including the immune related ones, whereas at HD both PRO and MIX groups were more modulated, when comparing to the respective CTRL groups. Density had an overwhelming suppressive effect on the immune-related genes, but this effect was counteracted by feeding functional diets, especially in fish fed with probiotics. This study shows for the first time the intestinal transcriptomic modulation when fish are fed functional diets at different stocking densities, and it shows the mitigating effect of these diets against deleterious conditions such as high density.





Identification and characterization of a novel conserved 46 kD maltoporin of Aeromonas hydrophila as a versatile vaccine candidate in European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Jianjun Feng, Peng Lin, Songlin Guo, Yuanyuan Jia, Yilei Wang, Frank Zadlock, Ziping Zhang

European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a crucial economic fish that has been plagued by Aeromonas hydrophila infections for many years. Vaccines that are cross-protective against multiple serotypes could provide an effective control against A. hydrophila-mediated diseases. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are highly immunogenic and capable of eliciting protective immune responses. This study reports the identification of a novel 46 kD maltoporin that is a conserved protective antigen for different serotypes of A. hydrophila. First, this study purified OMPs from the strains of A. hydrophila B10, B11, B12, B15, B19, and B20. Western blot analysis revealed that the 46 kD maltoporin of B11 could be strongly reacted with all the specific European eel antisera against the above OMPs from different serotypes A. hydrophila. Cloning and sequencing of the maltoporin revealed that it contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1281 nucleotides encoding 426 amino acids. Further sequence alignment analysis using the NCBI Conserved Domain Database (CDD) along with performing three-dimensional structure analysis showed that this protein belongs to maltoporin family. Three different study groups of European eels were intraperitoneal injected with one of the following conditions: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), formaline-killed-whole-cell (FKC) of A. hydrophila (FKC group) or with the recombinant maltoporin (OMP group) to analyze the immunogenicity of the recombinant maltoporin purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography. On 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-vaccination respectively, proliferation of the whole blood cells, titers of specific antibody, and lysozyme activities of experimental eels were detected. On 28d post-vaccination, eels from the three groups were challenged by intraperitoneal injection with five different live strains of A. hydrophila (B10, B11, B15, B19, and B20). The results showed that the proliferation of whole blood cells in the OMP group was significantly enhanced on 14d and the serum antibody titers of vaccinated European eels in FKC and OMP group were significantly increased on 28d and 42d. Lysozyme activities in serum were significantly up-regulated in FKC and OMP groups on 21d. The relative percent survival (RPS) of OMP group challenged by A. hydrophila B10, B11, and B20 was 75%, 62.5%, and 88%. This was higher than the corresponding RPS of FKC group with 50%, 37.5%, and 66%, respectively. The RPS was up to 100% in both OMP and FKC group when challenged by A. hydrophila B15 and B19. These results indicate that the 46 kD maltoporin is an effective potent vaccine candidate against different serotypes of A. hydrophila.





Editorial Board

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: April 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 63









TC38, a teleost TFPI-2 peptide that kills bacteria via penetration of the cell membrane and interaction with nucleic acids

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 64

Author(s): Min Zhang, Bin Yue, Ai-hua Zhang, Guang-hua Wang, Yong Liu, Shun Zhou, Shun-feng Cheng, Ning-qiu Li

Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI-2) is an analog of TFPI-1 and a potent endogenous inhibitor of tissue factor (TF)-mediated blood coagulation. Recent reports have proven that the C-terminal of TFPI-2 peptides in humans and several other vertebrates possesses antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In our previous study, we reported that the TFPI-2 peptide, TC38 in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) was active against Micrococcus luteus. In this study, we further examine the antimicrobial spectrum, mechanism of action, and function of TC38 in tongue sole. Our results indicate that TC38 is active against the Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio ichthyoenteri, Vibrio litoralis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus, as well as the fish Megalocytivirus, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV). The mechanism of action of TC38 against V. vulnificus was explored. The results showed that TC38 killed V. vulnificus cells without lysis of the cell membrane. FITC-labeled TC38 was able to penetrate the cell membrane and bind to DNA and RNA, then disrupt cellular function, eventually leading to cell death. Administration of TC38 to tongue sole significantly improved its defense against V. vulnificus infection. Overall, these results indicate that TC38 is a novel peptide with a broad antimicrobial spectrum. Furthermore, the unique action of TC38 against V. vulnificus adds new insights to the mechanism of action of vertebrate TFPI peptides. Moreover, TC38 is an interesting antimicrobial agent that could be useful in the fight against pathogenic invasion in aquaculture.





Molecular cloning and functional characterization of theta class glutathione S-transferase from Apostichopus japonicus

Published on 28/3/2017
Publication date: April 2017
Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 63

Author(s): Yina Shao, Zhimeng Lv, Chenghua Li, Weiwei Zhang, Xuemei Duan, Qiongfen Qiu, Chunhua Jin, Xuelin Zhao

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the superfamily of multifunctional detoxification isoenzymes and play crucial roles in innate immunity. In the present study, a theta class GST homology was identified from A. japonicus (designated as AjGST-θ) by RACE approaches. The full-length cDNA of AjGST-θ was of 1013 bp encoded a cytosolic protein of 231 amino acids residues. Structural analysis revealed that AjGST-θ processed the characteristic N-terminal GSH-binding site (G-site) and the C-terminal hydrophobic substrate binding site (H-site). Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis together supported that AjGST-θ belonged to a new member of theta class GST protein subfamily. Spatial expression analysis revealed that AjGST-θ was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues with the larger magnitude in intestine. The Vibrio splendidus challenge in vivo and LPS stimulation in vitro could both significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression of AjGST-θ when compared with control group. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified AjGST-θ showed high activity with GST substrate. Meantime, disc diffusion assay showed that recombinant AjGST-θ protein could markedly improve bacterial growth under Cumene hydroperoxide exposure. More importantly, the recombinant AjGST-θ could effectively prevent primary coelomocytes apoptosis after LPS exposure. Our present findings suggested that AjGST-θ might play significantly roles in the modulation of immune response and protect cells from pathogens infection in A. japonicus.





Share this page!

bookmark at: Twitter bookmark at: Facebook bookmark at: Del.icio.us bookmark at: Digg bookmark at: Reddit bookmark at: Yahoo bookmark at: Google

Recommend us!