Published on 27/4/2017
The effects of dietary bovine lactoferrin (LF) on the growth, haemato-biochemical parameters, non-specific serum immunity and stress responses were investigated in the African cichlid, Sciaenochromis fryeri. Four isocaloric diets containing 0 (control), 200, 400 and 800 mg LF kg−1 diet were formulated and fed to juvenile fish for 8 weeks. The treatments had no effects on the survival rate, growth performance or haematological parameters. Nor were the serum levels of total protein, albumin and globulin significantly influenced. Serum iron levels and total iron binding capacity (TIBC), however, changed vigorously as the result of dietary LF. Dietary LF led to significant reductions in serum levels of alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The highest lysozyme and bactericidal activities were observed in the fish fed the diets with 200 and 800 mg/kg of LF, respectively, while no changes were observed in their ACH50 levels. Recovery rates were measured after 10 min of air exposure stress. The rate was about twice higher (36% vs 20%) in fish fed on 400 mg LF than in those fed the control diet. Results revealed that adding 400 mg/kg LF could be beneficial as an iron discriminator, for liver function as well as an immune and stress resistance promoter.
Published on 11/4/2017
A feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of replacing fishmeal (FM) with canola meal (CM) on the growth performance, feed utilization and related gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fishes were fed with five isonitrogenous (330 g/kg crude protein) and isoenergetic (15 MJ/kg) diets for 16 weeks, which was graded replacing levels of fishmeal (replacing 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5 and 150 g/kg FM with CM). The results revealed that specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio of the groups with replacement level up to half were significantly higher than the others, while feed intake was inverse. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) mRNA level in the gut was significantly up-regulated in groups CM25 and CM50 compared to other groups. Relative gene expression of IGF-1 among groups was extremely significant based on the nonparametric test. Replacement of FM with CM caused a reduction in the hepatic expression of target of rapamycin (TOR), while significant increase trends were observed in hepatic genes of protein kinase B (AKT) and eIF4-binding protein (4E-BP2). However, TOR gene expression in the gut was significantly up-regulated first and then down-regulated, while mRNA levels of 4E-BP2 and S6K1 in the gut were first significantly decreased and then increased in CM75, finally significantly decreased to the lowest. The overall results indicated that up to 75 g/kg FM could be replaced by CM (350.5 g/kg CM) in the diets for juvenile blunt snout bream. Besides, these signalling molecules could explain further the mechanisms that juvenile blunt snout can only maintain optimal growth performance up to 75 g/kg FM replacement with CM.
Published on 11/4/2017
Soybean meal (SBM) is widely used in aqua feed products. In the European Union, only non-genetically modified (non-GM) SBM is accepted. However, global production of non-GM soybeans is declining and is limiting its utilization in aqua feeds. Therefore, non-GM SBM alternatives are required. In this study, guar meal was evaluated as a substitute for non-GM SBM in test feeds for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (initial weight of 57 ± 10.1 g) were stocked to 12 experimental tanks of a freshwater recirculation system with a stocking density of 6 kg/tank (500 L). Fish were organized in triplicate groups and received isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental feeds designated as control and test feeds 1–3, where 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg feed of non-GM SBM was replaced by guar meal. During the experimental test period of 56 days, fish were fed twice a day until apparent satiation. Compared to the control group, daily feed intake of test feeds 1–3 was significantly increased by guar meal inclusion. No significant differences in feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate were detected among all the treatments. Furthermore, guar meal inclusion did not affect protein efficiency ratio. However, protein productive value was significantly impaired when guar meal incorporation was above 100 g/kg feed. In accordance with the affected protein productive value, the crude protein content of the proximate whole fish body declined significantly. In contrast, condition factor, hepatosomatic index, slaughter yield and fillet yield provided no significant differences between the experimental groups. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that non-GM SBM could be entirely replaced by guar meal without affecting the general performance of fish and suggests guar meal as an appropriate alternative for non-GM SBM in the nutrition of rainbow trout.
Published on 7/4/2017
Juvenile channel catfish (5.6 g/fish) were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain, wheat middlings) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. The basal diet was supplemented with three levels of crystalline taurine to provide 1, 2 and 5 g/kg taurine. In addition, a fifth diet that contained 80 g/kg menhaden fishmeal formulated with the same plant-source ingredients was included as the positive control diet. Fish were fed the five diets once daily for 12 weeks. Weight gain was highest in catfish fed taurine at 2 g/kg (47.8 g/fish) compared to catfish fed the control basal diet (40.8 g/fish) and 80 g/kg fishmeal diet (41.1 g/fish) (p < .05). Among the taurine-supplemented diets, weight gain was lowest in catfish fed taurine at 5 g/kg. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in fish fed diets supplemented with taurine at 2 g/kg compared to all other treatments (p < .01). Survival during the growth study ranged from 98.0 to 99.0% (p > .05) for all treatments. The results suggest taurine supplementation to juvenile channel catfish may improve weight gain and FCR.
Published on 7/4/2017
The aim of this study was to determine the best synbiotic combination (based on growth and short-chain fatty acids production) between Enterococcus faecalis and eight prebiotics. Based on the results of in vitro studies, E. faecalis + galactooligosaccharide (EGOS) and E. faecalis + mannanoligosaccharide (EMOS) were selected as synbiotics. A 126-day feeding trial was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotics, probiotic and synbiotics on the growth indices, In vivo ADC of nutrients, digestive enzymes, hemolymph indices and finally, biological responses against 48-hr Aeromonas hydrophila exposure challenges of juvenile (4.13 ± 0.12 g) crayfish. The highest values of SGR (2.19% body weight day−1), VFI (2.75% body weight day−1), survival rate (96.67%) and the lowest FCR (2.33) were observed in the juvenile crayfish fed the EGOS- diet. The significantly (p < .05) highest means of in vivo ADCOM, in vivo ADCCP, in vivo ADCCF and in vivo ADCGE were measured in crayfish fed the EGOS- diet. The mean survival rate of Aeromonas hydrophila-injected crayfish fed the EGOS- diet (56%) was significantly (p < .05) higher than those of fed the control (8.67%) and other diets (22.67–35.32%). At the levels tested, 7.86 log CFU E. faecalis g−1 + 10 g kg−1 GOS in the diet was considered optimum.
Published on 31/3/2017
A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the dietary riboflavin requirement of the fingerling Channa punctatus (6.7 ± 0.85 cm; 4.75 ± 0.72 g) by a feeding casein–gelatin-based (450 g/kg crude protein; 18.39 kJ/g gross energy) purified diet containing graded levels of riboflavin (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/kg diet) to triplicate groups of fish near to satiation at 09:30 and 16:30 hr. Absolute weight gain (AWG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR, % per day), protein retention efficiency (PRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio were positively affected by increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased up to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet but did not decrease further with higher riboflavin supplementation. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration also supported the pattern of FCR, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased with increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin from 0 to 6 mg/kg. Liver riboflavin concentrations increased with increasing levels of riboflavin up to 8 mg/kg diet. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, PRE and liver riboflavin concentrations of fingerling C. punctatus with dietary riboflavin level indicated optimum growth and liver riboflavin saturation at 5.7, 6.1 and 7.7 mg riboflavin per kg diet, respectively.
Published on 31/3/2017
A 60-day feeding study with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was conducted to determine the effects of replacement of fish oil (FO) by unrefined peanut oil (PO) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, fatty acid composition and serum biochemical and haematological parameters. Rainbow trouts (51.60 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets formulated by replacing dietary FO with PO at levels of level 0 (PO0), 1/4 (PO25), 1/2 (PO50), 3/4 (PO75) and 4/4 (PO100), respectively. As a result, the best growth performance was observed in fish fed with PO0 and PO50 diet. No significant differences were detected among the groups in terms of body compositions. Fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets reflected the fatty acid profiles of the feeds that the fishes were fed with. In this study, the haematological parameters detected that there were no significant differences compared to the control group, whereas the serum biochemical parameters generally worsened as the ratio of peanut oil in the ration exceeded half of fish oil. As a conclusion, the results of the study suggested that the unrefined peanut oil could be used as a replacer of fish oil in diets for rainbow trout.
Published on 31/3/2017
The present Present experiment was conducted for 75 days in triplicates groups in 18 aquaria of 50 L each to study the effect of Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth and pigmentation of Botia dario. Six isonitrogenous diets were prepared with 350 g/kg crude protein (CP) level. Diet 1 (T1) was prepared without fortification of spirulina and wolffia. T2 diet was prepared with spirulina as supplement of carotenoids. Similarly, T3, T4, T5 and T6 diets were prepared by substituting 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg of CP from spirulina with wolffia, respectively. Significant differences (p < .05) in final mean weight, mean weight gain, body weight gain and specific growth rate were observed. 100 percent survivability was recorded in T4 and T5. Final carotenoids content (μg/g) in skin (166.39 ± 2.71) and muscle (10.67 ± 0.32) was recorded highest in T5 and in whole fish in T6 (13.03 ± 0.95 μg/g). Redness, yellowness and whiteness found to have no significant differences (p > .05). Thus, it can be concluded that diet containing 100 g/kg spirulina can be effective for better growth while diet containing 25 g/kg spirulina and 150 g/kg wolffia can be effective for higher survival and pigmentation in Botia dario.
Published on 31/3/2017
The study investigated effect of dietary supplementation with malic acid, Bacillus subtilis and a mixture of the two (3 × 2 factorial trial) on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) health. Treatment groups (T1–T6) were fed diets containing three levels of malic acid (0.0, 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg), each of which was supplemented with 0 and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. Each treatment group was assigned randomly to triplicate groups of 35 fish (5.26 ± 0.06 g) in 18 tanks for 84 days. The results indicated that survival was higher in all dietary treatments as compared to the control fed fish. The highest values of FBW, WG and SGR (%), PER, PPV and ER were recorded in groups T4 and T6, which were fed diets supplemented with 5 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis and 10 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. The best value of FCR was obtained in groups T4 and T6. The lowest total bacterial count in the gut and faeces was detected in fish from group T6. The values of haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly higher (p < .05) in fish from groups T4 and T6 (diets supplemented with malic acid and B. subtilis). As compared to the control fed fish, te mixture of these substances are promising as immune enhancher in aquacultured fish.
Published on 27/3/2017
Five 2-week feeding trials were conducted to investigate five stimulants on P. sinensis. Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated, one contained 600 g kg–1 fishmeal (FM diet) and the other contained 420 g kg–1 fishmeal and 225 g kg–1 animal protein blend (APB diet), and each tested one stimulant with four levels. The feeding stimulant candidates were betaine, 2-carboxy-ethyl dimethyl sulphonium bromide (DMPT), inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP), taurine and squid extract. In the experiment on each stimulant, turtles (10.85 ± 0.10 g) were equally divided into FM and APB groups and fed with an equal mixture of corresponding diets containing four levels of stimulants, respectively. Each diet contained a unique rare earth oxide as inert marker. Turtles were fed twice daily (8:00 and 17:00), and faeces were collected. Preference for each diet was estimated based on the relative concentration of each marker in the faeces. In the FM group, only IMP showed the enhanced attraction. But in APB groups, all the stimulants, except IMP, showed higher preference than basal diets for at least one inclusion level, and the optimum level was 10 g kg–1 for betaine, 0.1 g kg–1 for DMPT, 0.1 g kg–1 for IMP, 5 g kg–1 for taurine and 10 g kg–1 for squid extract, and the squid extract had the strongest stimulating effect among the stimulants.
Published on 27/3/2017
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary manganese (Mn) requirement for juvenile hybrid grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus × E. fuscoguttatus. The basal diet was formulated to contain 520 g/kg crude protein from casein and fishmeal. Manganese methionine was added to the basal diet at 0 (control group), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg Mn/kg diet providing 7.48, 10.34, 13.76, 19.72, 31.00 and 53.91 mg Mn/kg diet, respectively. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of juveniles, and each tank was stocked with 20 fish (initial weight, 60.06 ± 0.68 g). The manganese content in rearing water was monitored and kept below 0.01 mg/L. Results showed that the weight gain ratio (WGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), Mn contents in whole body, liver and vertebra, and activities of hepatic Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), total SOD (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were significantly improved by dietary Mn supplementation (p < .05). However, dietary Mn did not affect arginase (DArg) activity. The highest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in fish fed the basal diet (p < .05). No significant differences were found on the Cu and Zn contents in whole body by supplementing dietary Mn. Supplemented Mn in diets had significantly effect on liver and vertebral trace element deposition (p < .05). Fish fed the basal diet had the highest Fe and Zn contents in vertebra (p < .05). There were no significant differences on hepatic pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity with supplemented Mn levels below 13.76 mg/kg. As biomarker of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver was significantly higher in fish fed the basal diet (p < .05). Using the broken-line models based on SGR, dietary Mn requirement of the juvenile hybrid grouper was estimated to be 12.70 mg/kg diet.
Published on 27/3/2017
A 42-day experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of four different lipid containing diets (lipid 74.0, 105.3, 135.0, 168.1 g/kg diet) on growth, digestive enzymes activities, immunology and expression of canthaxanthin-based coloration in parrot cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus × Paraneetroplus synspilus). Each diet contained canthaxanthin 0.05 g/kg diet. Two hundred and eighty-eight fish were randomly stocked into 12 glass aquaria to form four triplicate groups. Fish were fed one of four diets daily at 20 g/kg of their total body weight. Growth, digestive enzymes activities, immunology and body colour parameters were measured at the end of experiment. Based on the polynomial regression of dietary lipid level and specific growth rate, the dietary lipid level inclusion was calculated as 117.2 g/kg for the highest specific growth rate of these animals. The polynomial regression of skin colour parameters and dietary lipid levels indicated the critical threshold lipid inclusions in diet: 113.7 g/kg for the best expression of lightness, 112.1 g/kg for redness, 127.5 g/kg for yellowness and 125.3 g/kg for chroma of fish's skin. Considering redness, lightness and specific growth rate are most important variables, a diet containing lipid 115.0 g/kg can be recommended for blood parrot cichlid.
Published on 24/3/2017
Three isonitrogenous diets containing 60 g kg–1, 90 g kg–1 or 120 g kg–1 lipid were formulated and fed to the Litopenaeus vannamei (2.00 ± 0.08 g) under two salinities (25 or 3 psu) in triplicate for 8 weeks. Shrimp fed 90 g kg–1 lipid had higher weight gain and specific growth rate than shrimp fed the other two diets regardless of salinity, and the hepatosomatic index increased with increasing dietary lipid at both salinities. The shrimp at 3 psu had significantly lower survival and ash content, higher condition factor, weight gain and specific growth rate than the shrimp at 25 psu. Increasing dietary lipid level induced the accumulation of serum MDA regardless of salinity, and at 3 psu, it reduced the serum GOT and GPT activities and the mRNA expression of TNF-α in intestine and gill of L. vannamei. The hepatopancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) and CPT-1 mRNA expression showed the highest value in shrimp fed 90 g kg–1 lipid diet at 3 psu. This study indicates that 120 g kg–1 dietary lipid may negatively affect the growth and induce oxidative damage in shrimp, but can improve immune defence at low salinity; 60 g kg–1 dietary lipid cannot afford the growth and either has no positive impact on the immunology for L. vannamei at 3 psu.
Published on 24/3/2017
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E on growth performance and antioxidant status of juvenile snakehead. The snakeheads (20.47 ± 0.06 g) were fed with five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets that contained 13 (the basal diet), 52, 79, 168 and 326 mg of vitamin E kg−1, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (SGR) and feed intake (FI) were achieved in fish fed on a diet with 79 mg kg−1 vitamin E (p < .05). No significant differences were found in protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival of fish among all groups (p > .05). Vitamin E supplementation improved hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity significantly. A consistent decline in the hepatic and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed in fish fed diets with the increased supplementation of vitamin E (p < .05). In addition, with the increasing level of vitamin E, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were reduced (p < .05). However, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were enhanced in fish fed 79 mg vitamin E kg−1 diet and then decreased significantly as the content of vitamin E in the diet increased (p < .05). Meanwhile, serum albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLB) were not affected by the supplemental levels of dietary vitamin E (p > .05). The vitamin E concentrations in liver and serum increased significantly with increasing dietary vitamin E (p < .05). Based on the broken-line regression of SGR, vitamin E level in the diet is estimated to be 80.5 mg kg−1 for Channa argus × Channa maculata. In conclusion, this study indicated that the dietary appropriate vitamin E could enhance the growth performance, antioxidant status and non-specific immune response.
Published on 22/3/2017
Soybean meal (SBM) is one of the most commonly used vegetable ingredient to replace fish meal in fish diets. However, SBM is limiting in some essential amino acids and contains numerous antinutritional factors and antigens that can affect intestinal microbiota and innate immune system in several finfish species and crustaceans and compromise health. The impact of SBM on health and gut microbiota of aquatic animals is not only affected by SBM in general, but also on the degree of treatment of the meal and exposure. Recently, many studies are actively seeking ways to complement or balance those adverse responses induced by high inclusion of SBM in aquaculture diets. These include advanced processing and mixture of feed with other feed components to balance antinutritional factors. The impact of dietary soybean oil on gut microbiota has also been investigated but to a lesser extent than SBM. As the gastrointestinal tract has been suggested as one of the major routes of infection in finfish species and crustaceans, the effect of soybean products on the gut microbiota is important to investigate. Several studies have focus on supplementation of SBM on the adverse responses of the innate immune system as immunological mechanisms are likely involved in the underlying pathology. However, the precise cause of the inflammatory process has not yet been clarified, even though some investigations have suggested that alcohol-soluble antinutritional factors, especially soy saponins, are potential causative factors. Possible interactions between soybean products and innate immune system in several finfish species and crustaceans are discussed.
Published on 17/3/2017
Four isocaloric-isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 50, 100 and 190 g/kg corn protein concentrate (CPC) as replacement for dietary fish meal were fed to Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings for 8 weeks. Tilapia growth parameters were not significantly (p > .05) different in fish fed diets with 0, 50 and 100 g/kg CPC and found to be superior compared to those fed on 190 g/kg CPC. Fish dressing ratios and body composition were similar among all treatments. The electron microscope indicated that the stomach size of control fish was slightly smaller and the wall was thinner while the stomach of the fish fed all other levels of CPC undergone a remarkable size increase and their walls were thicker after feeding diets with CPC. Total aerobic bacterial and coliform counts were significantly decreased in fish intestine when fed diets with 100 and 190 g/kg CPC compared with fish fed diets with 0 g/kg or 50 g/kg CPC. This study indicates that it is possible to replace up to 534 g/kg of dietary fish meal in tilapia fingerlings using 100 g/kg of CPC without any negative effect on fish growth and proximate body composition.
Published on 17/3/2017
A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the optimum dietary level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) based on growth and non-specific immune responses in juvenile rock bream. A basal diet without EPA supplementation was used as a control, and six other diets were prepared by supplementing with 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 or 40 g of EPA per kg diet. The actual EPA concentrations of the diets were 0.5, 4.3, 8.5, 13.0, 16.8, 21.0 and 41.2 g of EPA per kg diet, and the diets were abbreviated as EPA0.5, EPA4.3, EPA8.5, EPA13.0, EPA16.8, EPA21.0 and EPA41.2, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish averaging 1.06 ± 0.01 g (mean ± SD) were fed one of the seven experimental diets at the apparent satiation for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency of fish fed EPA16.8, EPA21.0 and EPA41.2 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed EPA0.5, EPA4.3, EPA8.5 and EPA13.0 diets (p < .05). Superoxide dismutase activity of fish fed EPA16.8, EPA21.0 and EPA41.2 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed EPA0.5, EPA4.3 and EPA8.5 diets. Fish fed EPA21.0 and EPA41.2 diets showed significantly higher lysozyme activity than did fish fed EPA0.5, EPA4.3, EPA8.5 and EPA13.0 diets. The broken-line analysis of weight gain indicated that the optimum dietary EPA level was 16.7 g/kg diet. These results suggested that the optimum dietary EPA level in juvenile rock bream could be greater than 16.7 g/kg diet but less than or equal to 16.8 g/kg diet based on the broken-line analysis and the ANOVA test of weight gain.
Published on 17/3/2017
A 10-week feeding trial of using housefly (Musca domestica) maggot meal (MM) in practical feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was conducted to assess the growth performance, ingredient utilization, flesh quality, innate immunity and its influence on water environment. Fish were fed five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, where fishmeal (FM) was substituted by MM at the level of 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 g kg-1 diet (remaining FM content: 360, 270, 180, 90 and 0 g kg-1). There was no significant difference in feed intake and apparent digestibility coefficient between the treatments. Replacing up to 270 g kg-1 FM did not have an impact on the growth performance and ingredient utilization, whereas the complete replacement of FM caused significantly lower survival rate, weight gain, specific growth rate and higher feed conversion rate. Dietary MM was also proved positively influential in flesh quality, whereas replacing 180 g kg-1 or more FM suppressed the innate immunity of tilapia. When compared by the effects on the water environment, the increasing substitute levels were accompanied with the declining concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and total phosphorus in the water. Our study verified the feasibility of using MM as a partial substitute of FM in aquatic feed. When replacing 180 g kg-1 FM (corresponding to half of the FM content in control diet) in the diet of Nile tilapia, it can serve as a renewable and environmentally superior alternative without compromising the performance criteria.
Published on 17/3/2017
Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth performance, lipid deposition, hepatic fatty acid composition and serum enzyme activities of juvenile Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus (initial mean weight 29.2 ± 1.34 g). Triplicate groups of 30 Japanese seabass were fed with six diets containing grade levels of n-3 LC-PUFA (1.30, 2.98, 5.64, 10.31, 14.51, 24.13 g kg–1 of dry weight) to apparent satiation twice daily for 9 weeks. The specific growth rate (SGR) was the highest in 10.31 g kg–1 dietary n-3 LC-PUFA group. Crude lipid content of the fish decreased significantly with increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA. Meanwhile, the hepatic lipid content increased significantly in the 24.13 g kg–1 group. Hepatic n-3 LC-PUFA content of total fatty acids was closely correlated with that in diet. No significant difference was observed in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Moderate n-3 LC-PUFA level (10.31 g kg–1 of dry weight) in the diet was beneficial to enhance the activity of lysozyme in serum. Based on SGR, the optimum dietary n-3 LC-PUFA content was estimated to be around 10.94 g kg–1 of dry weight by second-order polynomial regression method.
Published on 17/3/2017
Roasted coffee powder (RCP; Coffea arabica) is usually used as a beverage for human but there are few attempts to use it as a natural feed supplement in fish diets. In this study, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., (11.8 ± 0.09 g) were reared in zinc (Zn)-containing water at concentrations of 0.0 or 5.0 mg/L and cosupplemented with 0.0 or 1.0 g RCP/kg diet for 6 weeks to investigate effects of RCP supplementation, Zn exposure and their interaction on fish performance, biochemical variables, antioxidant activity and Zn bioaccumulation in whole fish body. Fish growth and feed intake were significantly affected by RCP supplementation, Zn toxicity and their interaction. However, fish fed a RCP-supplemented diet did not exhibit better performance than those fed the RCP-free diet and both diets produced higher fish performance than the Zn-toxicated fish. It is noticed that RCP supplementation to Zn-toxicated fish enhanced their growth, and feed utilization as compared to Zn-toxicated fish alone. Fish fed control and RCP-enriched diets showed no significant differences in biochemical variables, which were significantly altered due to waterborne Zn toxicity. Moreover, Zn reduced significantly; meanwhile, RCP supplementation increased significantly superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Notably, Zn exposure could reduce fish growth and antioxidant activity and increase Zn deposition in whole fish body. And RCP intake could enhance the antioxidant activity exerting a protective effect against Zn toxicity, thereby reducing Zn bioaccumulation in whole fish body.