In this issue:
Aquaculture feed supply chain attracting scrutiny. Pond beauty contest, Ram Kumar and social development. Culture modes of giant freshwater prawn in Yangtze River Delta for early harvest. Fish marketing in Kashmir, India - a case study of Srinagar. Community-based integrated fish-duck farming: A boon for rural development in agro-climatic conditions of Assam, India. Gastropod and bivalve fishery of Kakinada Bay, Andhra Pradesh, India: Management and conservation issues.
These are the proceedings of a consultation on the existence and effectiveness of environmental monitoring systems for fisheries and aquaculture in the Lower Mekong basin. The document provides a baseline assessment of environmental monitoring systems in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam and the report of a workshop to discuss the assessments findings and future steps towards an improved environmental monitoring and early warning system that will contribute to climate change adaptation in fisheries and aquaculture in the area.
The 71st edition of the Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease Report contains information from 15 governments. The foreword provides information about the 10th Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture.
The regional Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) reporting system has been implemented since the second quarter of 1998 and continues to provide a useful mechanism for aquatic animal disease information sharing amongst 21 participating governments in the Asia-Pacific region. The QAAD reporting system is a joint activity between NACA, FAO and OIE Regional Representation (Tokyo). The 2015/1 QAAD report, 67th in the series, includes disease information from 14 governments. This issue's foreword discusses the OIE Regional Workshop on Safe International Trade in Aquatic Animals and Aquatic Animal Products, held from 22-24 July 2015 in Japan.
This book is the proceedings of the “Regional Consultation on Culture-Based Fisheries Development in Asia”, held in Siem Reap, Cambodia, 21-23rd of October 2014, under the auspices of the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA). The consultation was jointly organised by NACA and the Fisheries Administration of the Royal Government of Cambodia.
Food and nutritional security remains problematic in many developing countries. There are many initiatives underway which are designed to increase food supply, employment and income opportunities, most of which require considerable capital inputs (for instance cropping, livestock production and aquaculture). Often overlooked, are the opportunities to produce more food from the natural productive ecology of lakes and forests. Culture-based fisheries are one example of a relatively simple and low cost technology which can deliver nutritional and economic benefits to communities which often have few livelihood options.
Culture-based fisheries are based in lakes and reservoirs, where fish populations are supplemented by hatchery-produced fingerlings. The stocked fish may breed naturally in the lakes, or they may be species which are desirable but which do not breed in the still-water environments. Fish growth is driven by the natural productivity of the water bodies. Generally, local communities have ownership of the fish, with the benefits shared or used for communal purposes. However, there are other options for management and ownership depending on local needs, cultural arrangements and other uses of the water.
Research and development of culture-based fisheries has been a major endeavour for NACA and ACIAR since the mid-1990s. This has involved projects in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Vietnam, Lao PDR and Cambodia, the results of which have been reported in previous publications, as noted below. In this volume, we bring together an update from research conducted in those countries and others. We trust the information will foster further development and spread of culture-based fisheries in Asia and beyond, and in doing so, bring livelihood and nutritional benefits to otherwise resource-poor communities.
Releasing of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) for the purposes of stock enhancement and to create a fishery has been conducted in Thailand since the 1980s. In each year, over a hundred million post larvae (30 day old post larvae of ~1 cm) of M. rosenbergii have been released into inland waters nationwide. The stocking density is, generally, about 2,500 prawn larvae/ha. Average age at harvest is around 6 to 8 months, with an average total length of 20 cm. The individual weights can range between 100 and 200 g after a year of release. Common fishing gears are gillnet, long-lines and traps, the latter designed exclusively for M. rosenbergii. Overall, the success of stocking M. rosenbergii is poor since the recapture rate is generally less than 5 %. However, the economic return is high. Average market price of M. rosenbergii is 150 Thai Baht/kg, which is about 3 times more than the average price of marketed freshwater fish. The profit is reported to be as high as 800 %. Moreover, the high market price of M. rosenbergii benefits traders at various levels, job creation and income for all related sectors. Although the economic profit is very high, the low rate of recapture of stocked M. rosenbergii makes this culture-based practice not entirely satisfactory. The major problem is that there are no guidelines in regard to the optimum size of seed for release as well as appropriate time and location to be stocked, that could enhance the rate of return and economic returns.
The regional Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) reporting system has been implemented since the second quarter of 1998 and continues to provide a useful mechanism for aquatic animal disease information sharing amongst 21 participating governments in the Asia-Pacific region. The QAAD reporting system is a joint activity between NACA, FAO and OIE Regional Representation (Tokyo). The 2014/2 QAAD report, 63rd in the series, includes disease information from 15 governments. This issue's foreword contains a new PCR method for the detection of AHPHND bacteria.