The regional Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) reporting system has been implemented since the second quarter of 1998 and continues to provide a useful mechanism for aquatic animal disease information sharing amongst 21 participating governments in the Asia-Pacific region. The QAAD reporting system is a joint activity between NACA, FAO and OIE Regional Representation (Tokyo). The 2015/1 QAAD report, 67th in the series, includes disease information from 14 governments. This issue's foreword discusses the OIE Regional Workshop on Safe International Trade in Aquatic Animals and Aquatic Animal Products, held from 22-24 July 2015 in Japan.
This book is the proceedings of the “Regional Consultation on Culture-Based Fisheries Development in Asia”, held in Siem Reap, Cambodia, 21-23rd of October 2014, under the auspices of the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA). The consultation was jointly organised by NACA and the Fisheries Administration of the Royal Government of Cambodia.
Food and nutritional security remains problematic in many developing countries. There are many initiatives underway which are designed to increase food supply, employment and income opportunities, most of which require considerable capital inputs (for instance cropping, livestock production and aquaculture). Often overlooked, are the opportunities to produce more food from the natural productive ecology of lakes and forests. Culture-based fisheries are one example of a relatively simple and low cost technology which can deliver nutritional and economic benefits to communities which often have few livelihood options.
Culture-based fisheries are based in lakes and reservoirs, where fish populations are supplemented by hatchery-produced fingerlings. The stocked fish may breed naturally in the lakes, or they may be species which are desirable but which do not breed in the still-water environments. Fish growth is driven by the natural productivity of the water bodies. Generally, local communities have ownership of the fish, with the benefits shared or used for communal purposes. However, there are other options for management and ownership depending on local needs, cultural arrangements and other uses of the water.
Research and development of culture-based fisheries has been a major endeavour for NACA and ACIAR since the mid-1990s. This has involved projects in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Vietnam, Lao PDR and Cambodia, the results of which have been reported in previous publications, as noted below. In this volume, we bring together an update from research conducted in those countries and others. We trust the information will foster further development and spread of culture-based fisheries in Asia and beyond, and in doing so, bring livelihood and nutritional benefits to otherwise resource-poor communities.
Fish stocking in Indonesian lakes and reservoirs has been conducted for a long time. Since 1999, culture-based fisheries (CBF) practices based on scientific evidence such as using suitable fish species, consideration of the primary productivity, stocking density, economic evaluation and community participation, have been conducted in some reservoirs and lakes and have showed encouraging results. Potential fish yield of a water body for CBF development is one of the important factors in determining its success. Potential fish yield of some lakes and reservoirs was estimated using a morpho-edaphic index or primary productivity approach, and the water bodies were classified based on morpho-limnological characteristics. Estimated potential fish yield of small reservoirs/lakes with an area between 1.0-200 ha showed the highest potential with an average yield of 2835 ± 623.6 kg/ha/yr compared to the others of lager area. In the future, therefore, development of CBF was highly recommended and prioritised in small reservoirs with an area less than 200 ha, mostly distributed in Sumatera, Java, and Nusa Tenggara with more than 2,000 reservoirs. However, about 80% of those reservoirs were categorised as idle presently.
Peter Edwards writes on rural aquaculture: Promising aquaculture practices for sustainable intensification
Culture and breeding of Archocentrus spilurum at Tuticorin District of Tamil Nadu, India
Linga Prabu, D. and M. Kavitha
Searching for ecological ways to reduce WSSV impact
Roel Bosma, Eleonor Tendencia, Marc Verdegem and Johan Verreth
Fisheries and aquaculture-based livelihoods prospects in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Bambang Indratno Gunawan, Rini Kusumawati, Leontine E. Visser and Roel H. Bosma
Linking farms and landscapes in the governance of sustainable Vietnamese shrimp aquaculture
Tran Thi Thu Ha, Simon R. Bush, and Han van Dijk
People in aquaculture
Resilience of shrimp farming based livelihoods in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Tran Thu Phung Ha, Han van Dijk, Leontine Visser, Roel Bosma
Aquatic animal health
Farming system affects the virulence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in penaeid shrimp
Tran Thi Tuyet Hoa, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Mark P. Zwart, Mart C.M. de Jong and Just M. Vlak
The regional Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) reporting system has been implemented since the second quarter of 1998 and continues to provide a useful mechanism for aquatic animal disease information sharing amongst 21 participating governments in the Asia-Pacific region. The QAAD reporting system is a joint activity between NACA, FAO and OIE Regional Representation (Tokyo). The 2014/2 QAAD report, 63rd in the series, includes disease information from 15 governments. This issue's foreword contains a new PCR method for the detection of AHPHND bacteria.
Peter Edwards writes on rural aquaculture: Towards meeting future demand for fish: Aquaculture in inland or marine land or water-based systems?
Status of carp farming in India
Research and farming techniques
Recent trends in mariculture in S.E. Sulawesi, Indonesia: General considerations
Wa Iba Sahrir, La Ode M. Aslan, La Ode Ridwan Bolu, Geoff J. Gooley, Brett A. Ingram, Sena S. De Silva
Murrel culture in backyard cement tanks: A breakthrough and a success story
M. A. Haniffa and S. Jafar Sathik
Mobile telephony – ICT enabled fisheries extension service for sustainable shrimp farming
D. Deboral Vimala, K. Ramkumar, M. Kumaran, T. Ravisankar, P. Mahalakshmi, P. Ravichandran and A.G. Ponniah
The regional Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) reporting system has been implemented since the second quarter of 1998 and continues to provide a useful mechanism for aquatic animal disease information sharing amongst 21 participating governments in the Asia-Pacific region. The QAAD reporting system is a joint activity between NACA, FAO and OIE Regional Representation (Tokyo). The 2013/3 QAAD report, 61st in the series, includes disease information from 15 governments. This issue's foreword discusses an OIE tool for the evaluation of performance of aquatic veterinary services.
This study focused on events in a representative, 50-pond Indonesian shrimp farming system in Pangkep district, South Sulawesi. Ponds were stocked with Penaeus monodon and the study extended across a single cropping period between May and October 2010. It was designed to improve our understanding of the main causal pathways for white spot disease (WSD), the most serious cause of production loss in these systems. The longitudinal observational study focused on recording the occurrence of different genotypes of the causal infectious agent, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), in selected components of the system across time, and looking for relationships with pond outcomes, particularly WSD occurrence. We expected that findings would (a) enable relevant Indonesian agencies, and ultimately farmers themselves, to better identify localities suitable for smallholder shrimp farming using better management practice (BMP) programs and (b) inform modification and simplification of these programs, thereby improving both profitability and adoption rates.
Our transmission trials showed that genotypy variations did not occur during three sequential passages (four including the preparation of the stock inoculums) in L. vannamei or alternatively in other crustacean hosts. This indicates the genotypes are likely to be sufficiently stable for use in local epidemiological studies during disease outbreaks in shrimp ponds.
WSD outbreaks were recorded in 11 of the study ponds. Outbreaks were attributed to WSSV genotype TRS5 in seven ponds and to genotypes TRS4 and TRS6 in two ponds each. Data analysis showed that:
These findings suggest that stocking PCR test-negative PLs, coupled with careful management of water intake during nearby WSD outbreaks are the two most useful practice changes farmers can adopt to reduce the risk of outbreaks in their ponds. Establishment of an active, well-resourced and trained extension service, committed to fostering cohesive, informed farmer groups, is the key to enabling these inexpensive practice changes.