Sustainable aquaculture and aquatic resources management

Priority adaptations to climate change for Pacific fisheries and aquaculture: reducing risks and capitalizing on opportunities

Author(s): Johnson, J., Bell, J., De Young, C. | Published: 3/7/2013 | 2032 views

This publication includes:(i) a summary of the technical presentations provided to the workshop participants on the implications of climate change for Pacific fisheries and aquaculture; and (ii) the outcomes of discussions by participants on the priority adaptations that Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) can implement to reduce risks and take advantage of opportunities.

The workshop was hosted by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) as the culmination of 3.5 years of work to assess the vulnerability of Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. It also formed part of a series of climate change awareness-raising and adaptation planning workshops around the globe financed through a Japanese-funded, and FAO-implemented, project “Climate Change, Fisheries and Aquaculture: Understanding the Consequences as a Basis for Planning and Implementing Suitable Responses and Adaptation Strategies” GCP/INT/253/JPN). The technical presentations and range of possible adaptations and supporting policies presented were based on SPC publications. Discussions focused on priority adaptations for economic development and government revenue, food security and sustainable livelihoods for Melanesian, Micronesian and Polynesian nations. The adaptations identified reflect the different fisheries participation rates and importance of fish to economic development and as a source of local food and income n these different regions.

The workshop discussions recommended immediate action by all PICTs to manage fisheries resources sustainably now and into the future, to establish systems to minimize impacts of various drivers facing the sector now and from future climate change, and to capitalise on opportunities. Cooperation between PICTs and partnerships among governments, regional and international organizations nd communities were highlighted as important ways to implement effective adaptation.

Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change for polyculture systems, Vietnam: Policy brief

Published: 4/10/2012 | 2305 views
This brief summarises the results from the interdisciplinary study conducted within the Aquaclimate project in Ca Mau and Bac Lieu provinces of the lower Mekong Delta looking at the impacts of climate change on small scale improved polyculture farming. The brief further provides guidelines for policy development to address the climate change impacts on small scale improved polyculture farming systems in Vietnam and how adaptation measures should be implemented in the region. The guidelines are based on recommendations from stakeholders including farmers.

Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change for polyculture systems, Vietnam: Tech brief

Published: 4/10/2012 | 2335 views

This brief summarises the results from the interdisciplinary study conducted within the Aquaclimate project in Ca Mau and Bac Lieu provinces of the lower Mekong Delta looking at the impacts of climate change on small scale improved polyculture systems. The brief further provides guidelines for policy development to address the climate change impacts on small scale improved polyculture farming systems in Vietnam and how adaptation measures should be implemented in the region. The guidelines are based on recommendations from stakeholders including farmers.

Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change for polyculture systems, Vietnam

Published: 4/10/2012 | 2331 views
The shrimp farming case study is conducted in Cà Mau and Bạc Liêu provinces, Mekong Delta, Southern Vietnam by: (1) organized stakeholder workshops to map farmer's perceptions, adaptation measures and agencies involved; and (2) questionnaire survey to assess vulnerability of the production system to climatic changes and extreme climatic events. Shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta is dominated by small-scale practices in terms of area and production. For example, Cà Mau province contributed about 20% of aquaculture shrimp to the total Mekong Delta and 15% of the nation, especially 91% of the production from the improved extensive model. Yield ranges 133.00 – 159.60kg/ha/season and profit estimated about 8.03 – 17.76 million Dong/ha/season.

Temperature, rainfall, sea level rise, storm and typhoon in the Mekong Delta are predicted to change substantially in the future. For example, sea level may rise about 28 – 33cm by 2050 and about 65 – 100cm by 2100 relative to the baseline period of 1980 – 1999. Local farmers have already observed irregular weather pattern and extreme events for the last decades. There are at least 11 climate change events observed by farmers. The farmers stated that most of climate change impacts have negative impacts (74.75%), 20.56% would have no consequence and 4.69% have positive impacts. Opportunity to diversify likelihoods into multi-cropping (rice crop in the wet season and shrimp in the dry season) is a typical positive impact from salt intrusion.

Farmer perceptions of climate change are identified: High temperature, Water level rise, Rainfall in the dry season, Storm and typhoon, and irregular seasonal change. Farmers stated that “High temperature” is the most important factors influencing their shrimp farming followed by “Storm and typhoon”, “Sea level rise”, and “Rainfall”. Meanwhile, group of Science and Technology claimed that “Rainfall” is the most important due to irregular and unusual weather, followed by “Storm and typhoon”, “High temperature”, and “Sea level rise”.

Adaptation measures are identified by farmers and have been adapted to climate change. For “High temperature”: change surface water, make pond deeper, increase dike height, make ditch wider; For “Storms and typhoons”: improved pond dike (wider and stronger), use probiotic to improve water quality, improve sluice gate; For “Sea level rise”: improved pond dike (wider and stronger), improve forecast information/ monitoring, use net to prevent shrimp escape, use water pumping machine; For “Rainfall”: use lime to adjust water quality, change water surface, use aerator.

Policy frameworks including the policy options are also recommended by Science and Technology Group, including applying Best Management Practices or aquaculture certifications, new pond design, seed quality control, accurate weather forecast, planting mangrove for coastal erosion protection, crop calendar management, planning and zoning for rice and shrimp culture, salinity tolerance species.

Actions plan to respond to climate change should undertake: (1) Training of farmers and trainers by regular training, posters, workshops, education, mass media and materials on policy/strategy; (2) More funding for improving infrastructure (dike and sluice gate maintenance) (24.3%) by establishing credit programmes and allocating a reasonable budget for related activities; (3) Need for standard routines for monitoring shrimp farms to monitor water/seed quality and inspect disease outbreaks and then inform/advise farmers in order for farmers; (4) Establishing shrimp cooperatives/clubs as co-management models to solve conflicts between farmers in water and management and disease infection; (5) Plan and zone for aquaculture at sustainable development by GIS tools and analysis; (6) Establish new farming models and improve pond design by intensify the farming system in a small area as a nursery area or intensive farming area; (7) Diversify livelihoods to improve farmers’ income and resilience capacity to climate change; (8) Enhance shrimp population in the wild by regularly release into the wild; (9) Good Aquaculture Practices should be encouraged for farmer communities; (10) Establish “New rural development model” as recently approved by the Central Government with the aim at supporting a group of local people in shrimp farming to improve household’s income and sustainable development.

Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change for catfish farmers in the Mekong Delta: Policy brief

Published: 4/10/2012 | 1980 views
This brief summarises the results from the interdisciplinary study conducted within the AQUACLIMATE project, working with catfish farmers in the Mekong Delta. It highlights the policy implications, research agenda and on farm adaptations that will be required to sustain the industry and its contribution to the livelihoods of poor farmers and food security.

Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change for catfish farmers, Mekong Delta: Science brief

Published: 4/10/2012 | 1944 views
This brief summarises the results from the interdisciplinary study conducted within the AQUACLIMATE project, working with catfish farmers in the Mekong Delta. It highlights the science and technology needs that must be addressed to sustain the industry and its contribution to the livelihoods of poor farmers and food security.

Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change for catfish farmers, Mekong Delta: Tech brief

Published: 4/10/2012 | 2100 views
This brief summarises the results from the interdisciplinary study conducted within the AQUACLIMATE project, working with catfish farmers in the Mekong Delta. It highlights on farm adaptation measures that can be implemented by catfish farmers to adapt to and prepare for climate change.

Impact of climate change on culture-based fisheries in seasonal reservoirs, Sri Lanka: Policy brief

Published: 4/10/2012 | 1886 views
This brief summarises the results from the interdisciplinary study conducted within the Aquaclimate project in Sri Lanka, which investigated the impacts of climate change on culture based fisheries. The brief further provides guidelines for adaptation and policy development to address the climate change impacts on culture based fisheries in Sri Lanka and how adaptation measures should be implemented.

Impact of climate change on culture-based fisheries in seasonal reservoirs, Sri Lanka: Science brief

Published: 4/10/2012 | 1819 views
This brief summarises the results from the interdisciplinary study conducted within the Aquaclimate project in Sri Lanka looking at the impacts of climate change on culture based fisheries (CBF). The brief further provides guidelines for academia, researchers and technologists to support farmers for adaptation measures to address the climate change impacts on CBF in Sri Lanka.

Impact of climate change on culture-based fisheries in seasonal reservoirs, Sri Lanka: Tech brief

Published: 4/10/2012 | 1769 views
This brief summarises the results from the interdisciplinary study conducted within the Aquaclimate project in Sri Lanka looking at the impacts of climate change on culture based fisheries (CBF). The brief further provides guidelines for farmers seeking to address the climate change impacts on CBF in Sri Lanka.

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