Sustainable aquaculture and aquatic resources management

Feeding and feed management of Indian major carps in Andhra Pradesh, India

Author(s): Ramakrishna, R., Shipton, T.A., Hasan, M.R. | Published: 15/12/2013 | 3033 views

This technical paper reviews the aquaculture of Indian major carps with special reference to current feeding and feed management practices in Andhra Pradesh, India. The study is based on a survey of 106 farmers from four regions in Andhra Pradesh (Kolleru, Krishna, West Godavari, and Nellore). While the study primarily focused on the feed management practices associated with major carp production, management practices that are used under polyculture conditions with other species-groups were also assessed. The study revealed that mash feed was the most popular and widely used feed type. De-oiled rice bran was used as the principal feed ingredient, followed by groundnut cake, cottonseed cake and raw rice bran. The poor quality of the mash feed ingredients, especially the de-oiled rice bran, groundnut cake, and cottonseed cake was an important issue of concern to the farmers. Commercially manufactured pelleted feeds were used by 33 percent of the farmers to complement their mash feeds, with the majority choosing to use sinking pellets. Since 2007, there has been a marked increase in the use of commercial pellets, most notably for the large-scale production of the striped catfish. Grow-out farmers feeding mash feeds used variants of a bag feeding method known as rope and pole feeding. In the nursery and rearing ponds, the commonly used feed ingredients included groundnut cake, de-oiled rice bran and raw rice bran. The most common feeding practice was broadcast feeding. Constraints to Indian major carp production were identified, and research and development needs characterised.

Hatchery Feed Guide and Year Book 2013

Author(s): | Published: 23/7/2013 | 2102 views was launched in 2012 as an offshoot of, in response to requests for dedicated information for this specialized area of the industry. Over the past several months we have been adding to the site and have produced newsletters and started a Facebook page and LinkedIn discussion group to help bring hatchery operators together. The one question we continue to be asked is “Who supplies hatchery feeds?” This publication is a first attempt to answer that question.

The Hatchery Feed Guide and Year Book brings together information about hatchery feeds available on the market today. It makes no claim to be comprehensive, but we hope this first issue is a step towards making the lives of hatchery operators a little easier—at least when it comes to finding and selecting feeds. We hope you will give us some feedback on what you like and don’t like and what you would like to see in the next one. A note about the listings: we have relied entirely on information provided by suppliers in the compilation of the listings in this guide [See complete Disclaimer information]. We appreciate the time these companies have taken and the encouragement they have given us. If you supply hatchery feeds and your products are not included we apologize; please email me to make sure we contact you in time for the next issue. We also thank the editorial contributors for the articles that are included.

Please feel free to share this publication: forward it to your friends and colleagues—but please keep in intact.

Suzi Dominy

editor 'at'

Diet formulator program (Excel)

Published: 25/8/2008 | 14868 views
Diet Formulator is a simple Excel-based diet calculation program. It is not a least-cost diet formulation program, but simply a tool that allows the user to select ingredients and calculate the nutritional specification of the formulated diet. The strength of the program is the database of feed ingredients that are common to SE Asia. However, it must be recognized that the nutritional specifications for these ingredients are only the best average values that the author was able to source. The program will allow the user to insert other ingredients for which the user has his/her own chemical analysis. Also, ingredient costs can be entered in the database and the program will calculate the ingredient cost of the diet formulation.

Instructions on use of this program are also available for download as a Word document. Please read the instructions! For more information about the program please contact kevin.williams 'at' We would like to thank Dr Kevin Williams from CSIRO for sharing this resource.

Feeds and Feeding for Inland Aquaculture in Mekong Region Countries

Published: 27/7/2005 | 4383 views
Aquaculture of freshwater species in the Mekong regions of Cambodia, Vietnam, Lao PDR and Thailand is an important source of protein and income for small-scale land owners. But the costs of feeding are constraining development of aquaculture. This report describes the current situation with feeds and feeding for inland aquaculture in these countries and identifies the research and training needed to benefit small-scale aquaculture producers.

Use of fishery resources as feed inputs to aquaculture development: trends and policy implications

Published: 28/6/2007 | 2516 views
Although aquaculture?s contribution to total world fisheries landings has increased ten-fold from 0.64 million tonnes in 1950 to 54.78 tonnes in 2003, the finfish and crustacean aquaculture sectors are still highly dependent upon marine capture fisheries for sourcing key dietary nutrient inputs, including fishmeal, fish oil and low value trash fish. This dependency is particularly strong within aquafeeds for farmed carnivorous finfish species and marine shrimp.

On the basis of the information presented within this fisheries circular, it is estimated that in 2003 the aquaculture sector consumed 2.94 million tonnes of fishmeal and 0.80 million tonnes of fish oil, or the equivalent of 14.95 to 18.69 million tonnes of pelagics (using a dry meal plus oil to wet fish weight equivalents conversion factor of 4 to 5). Moreover, coupled with the current estimated use of 5 to 6 million tonnes of trash fish as a direct food source for farmed fish, it is estimated that the aquaculture sector consumed the equivalent of 20?25 million tonnes of fish as feed in 2003 for the total production of about 30 million tonnes of farmed finfish and crustaceans (fed finfish and crustaceans 22.79 million tonnes and filter feeding finfish 7.04 million tonnes). At a species-group level, net fish-consuming species in 2003 (calculated on current pelagic input per unit of output using a 4?5 pelagic:meal conversion factor) included river eels, 3.14?3.93; salmon, 3.12?3.90; marine fish, 2.54?3.18; trout, 2.47?3.09 and marine shrimp, 1.61?2.02; whereas net fish producers included freshwater crustaceans, 0.89?1.11; milkfish, 0.30?0.37; tilapia, 0.23?0.28; catfish, 0.22?0.28; and feeding carp, 0.19?0.24.

Particular emphasis within the report is placed on the need for the aquaculture sector to reduce its current dependence upon potentially food-grade marine capture-fishery resources for sourcing its major dietary protein and lipid nutrient inputs. Results are presented on the efforts to date concerning the search for cost-effective dietary fishmeal and fish oil replacers, and policy guidelines are given for the use of fishery resources as feed inputs by the emerging aquaculture sector.

Tacon, A.G.J.; Hasan, M.R.; Subasinghe, R.P.
Use of fishery resources as feed inputs for aquaculture development: trends and policy implications. FAO Fisheries Circular. No.1018. Rome, FAO. 2006. 99p.

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