Sustainable aquaculture and aquatic resources management

Proceedings of the Expert Consultation on Genetic Erosion Risk Analysis for Shrimp Diseases in Asia

Published: 27/1/2014 | 3146 views

Shrimp aquaculture in tropical regions is facing a disease-induced catastrophe of lost production.  It is estimated that more than 40% of tropical shrimp production is lost to disease annually. The devastating impacts of disease on lost incomes, livelihoods, increased operational costs, trade restrictions and loss of consumer confidence has been a subject of many consultations and policy dialogues.  Discussions of disease crisis have to date been largely focused on identification of pathogens, guidelines and standards for disease detection and surveillance, regulations to limit trans-boundary movement of animals, and adoption of better management practices. 

There is reason to believe that current broodstock management practices may induce genetic erosion that increases susceptibility to disease and vulnerability to epizootics:

  1. Broodstock management as it is currently conducted in SE Asia, particularly by secondary and small-scale hatcheries, is likely to cause rapid accumulation of inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity ("genetic erosion") at farm level;
  2. Inbreeding increases susceptibility to diseases and lowers the threshold for the outbreak of epidemics. This effect may be especially strong in shrimps;
  3. Separately from its correlation with inbreeding, declining genetic diversity also increases the incidence of epizootics (the monoculture effect) and impedes the ability to adapt to stressful environments and changing climate;
  4. These epidemiological effects of climate stress and inbreeding are likely to be multiplicative;
  5. The possible role of genetic erosion in the incidence and prevalence of diseases and epizootics are not included in current discussions of the disease problem in tropical aquaculture.

The basic tenet for this Expert Consultation is that an important aggravating factor in the disease crisis is an agro-economic system that locks shrimp breeders, hatcheries and farmers into behaviour that induces high levels of inbreeding.  If inbreeding does increase the severity and frequency of epidemics, this disease crisis will only get worse over vast areas of Asia, Central and South America, Africa and the Middle East until  it is addressed.

This Expert Consultation was organized in conjunction with the annual meeting of the NACA Aquatic Animal Health Advisory Group (NACA-AG) to take advantage of the physical presence and expertise of a small group of world renowned Aquatic Animal Health experts from several national and international institutions. The list of participants and workshop agenda are presented in Annexes 1 and 2.  This consultation is perhaps the first of its kind to bring together a balanced group of experts from diverse fields – epidemiology, microbiology, disease diagnostics & surveillance, aquaculture genetics, fish breeding, and evolutionary biology – to take a fresh, in-depth, and wider perspective on the possible interaction between genetic side-effects of broodstock management and the looming threat of aquatic animal diseases, in particular the contemporary shrimp disease crisis. 

Determinants for WSD outbreaks in Indonesian smallholder shrimp ponds– a pilot study of locality factors, WSSV genotype distributions and pond factors

Author(s): Callinan, R., Whittington, R., Sumarto, B., Toribio, J., Walker, P., Herianto, A., Gudkovs, N., Rooke, E., Murwantoko, Amin, N.N., Taslihan, A., Mustafa, A., Fachry, M.E. | Published: 25/11/2013 | 3007 views

This study focused on events in a representative, 50-pond Indonesian shrimp farming system in Pangkep district, South Sulawesi. Ponds were stocked with Penaeus monodon and the study extended across a single cropping period between May and October 2010. It was designed to improve our understanding of the main causal pathways for white spot disease (WSD), the most serious cause of production loss in these systems. The longitudinal observational study focused on recording the occurrence of different genotypes of the causal infectious agent, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), in selected components of the system across time, and looking for relationships with pond outcomes, particularly WSD occurrence. We expected that findings would (a) enable relevant Indonesian agencies, and ultimately farmers themselves, to better identify localities suitable for smallholder shrimp farming using better management practice (BMP) programs and (b) inform modification and simplification of these programs, thereby improving both profitability and adoption rates.

Objectives were:

  1. To determine the stability of WSD outbreak-associated WSSV genotypes when passaged through WSSV-free Litopenaeus vannamei, WSSV PCR test-negative P. monodon and selected other WSSV PCR test-negative, non-penaeid hosts;
  2. To identify, using locality-specific environmental data, pond environmental data and data on WSSV genotype distribution and dynamics, the likely determinants for WSD outbreaks at a suitable, broadly representative locality in South Sulawesi.

Our transmission trials showed that genotypy variations did not occur during three sequential passages (four including the preparation of the stock inoculums) in L. vannamei or alternatively in other crustacean hosts. This indicates the genotypes are likely to be sufficiently stable for use in local epidemiological studies during disease outbreaks in shrimp ponds.

WSD outbreaks were recorded in 11 of the study ponds. Outbreaks were attributed to WSSV genotype TRS5 in seven ponds and to genotypes TRS4 and TRS6 in two ponds each. Data analysis showed that:

  • WSSV was ubiquitous at the site. Strategies to prevent WSD outbreaks are probably more useful than trying to prevent WSSV infection in endemic areas.
  • Stocking with WSSV PCR test-negative postlarvae (PLs) supports maintenance of an outbreak-free pond for at least the first two months of production.
  • Once PLs have been excluded as a risk factor for WSSV infection, biosecurity (minimising risk of heavy WSSV exposure post stocking) and environmental factors (management of risk factors for WSD outbreaks) become more important.
  • Water released from WSD outbreak ponds was likely to be an important initiator of disease outbreaks in upstream and downstream ponds;
  • Crabs, wild shrimp, zooplankton and/or polychaetes were not important sources of WSSV infection for WSD outbreaks in farmed shrimp.

These findings suggest that stocking PCR test-negative PLs, coupled with careful management of water intake during nearby WSD outbreaks are the two most useful practice changes farmers can adopt to reduce the risk of outbreaks in their ponds. Establishment of an active, well-resourced and trained extension service, committed to fostering cohesive, informed farmer groups, is the key to enabling these inexpensive practice changes.

Shrimp Price Study, Phase III: Case studies in Vietnam, Indonesia and Bangladesh

Published: 2/12/2011 | 2403 views
This study is a continuation of “Evaluation of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami and US anti-dumping duties on the shrimp farming sector of South and South-East Asia

BMPs and Cluster Management for Empowering Small Scale Farmers: Scaling Up Strategies

Published: 29/6/2011 | 3062 views
The workshop was held in Chennai, India from 16-18 May 2011, at the Central Institute for Brackishwater Aquaculture. It was convened as an activity of the ASEM Aquaculture Platform, funded by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme.

The main purpose of the national workshop was to develop practical scaling up strategies at the national level and build consensus for an implementation plan for wider adoption of shrimp BMPs through a cluster management approach. The specific objectives of the workshop were to:

• Bring together key national institutions and stakeholders perform a thorough assessment of the impact of shrimp BMP and cluster management programs in India, including technical, social, economic, environmental and institutional concerns.
• Identify factors for success and constraints to adoption.
• Identify opportunities and challenges for scaling up.
• Provide projections on the impact of scaling up at the national level.
• Develop scaling up strategies for implementation by national institutions, regional organisations and potential donors.

Additional objectives included:
• Build awareness and capacity of relevant national stakeholders on BMPs, Cluster Management, Standards and Certification, cluster/group certification, Internal Control system (ICS), market access, etc.
• Share lessons from BMP and cluster management projects in India, Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia.
• Strengthen the networking of shrimp BMP project implementers in the region.
• Learn from other sectors like agriculture, the dairy industry and links to other sectors such as the information and communications (ICT) sector.

Supporting small scale shrimp farmer groups to access international market through certification

Published: 7/6/2011 | 1734 views
The phase 2 of the project has been conducted in Thailand and India, since July 2009 to support and demonstrate small scale shrimp farmer group access to international markets through certification schemes. This project demonstrated successfully that small-scale farmers organised into groups, improved their technical capacities, and achieved access to profitable markets. This achievement was the result of strong partnerships with producers, private sector operators, and government agencies all working towards the common goal of the development of a sustainable business model for small scale aquaculture.

Participating in the Dialogue: Reflecting the WWF’s intention to develop the Shrimp Aquaculture Dialogue (ShAD) standards in multi-stakeholder manner, the project supported four people (representing small scale production sector in Thailand and India), to participate in the dialogue in March 2010 in Jakarta, Indonesia. Detailed surveys and discussions were held among the selected farmer groups in Thailand and India to formulate and submit public comments in April 2010 during their first public comment period. The comments covered all the proposed standards; however core points focused on the issues of capacities of resource limited small scale farmers, particularly around the financial burden and the monitoring mechanism.

Capacity building of small scale farmers towards meeting ShAD standards was conducted in related small groups. The farmers were closely monitored and able to access both technical and financial services in the group. The project staff facilitated the interaction between the farmer groups and other partners (a processing plant and EU buyer) to establish the market linkage. The small-scale farming sector is often considered too difficult to work with, due to the large numbers of unorganized farmers; however, the large total numbers of such farmers provide a significant business opportunity once they are organised.

Estimated cost and benefit analysis of compliance with ShAD standards indicated that average costs ranged from US$ 14,113 in India (6 cases) to US$ 24,678 per farm in Thailand (I case). These values highlighted the financial concerns and other difficulties. For examples lack of technical knowledge on the Biodiversity inclusive Environmental Impact Assessment (BEIA) and the Participatory Social Impact Assessment (p-SIA) of the small-scale farming sector in complying with the ShAD standards.

The way forward is suggested as follows:

1) Further adjust the draft ShAD standards to provide more scope for improved participation by
resource poor but innovative small-scale farmers to comply with these standards, or

2) Facilitate involvement of other stakeholders such as government agencies and private sector
representatives to support/partner with the small-scale farming sector.

Shrimp Price Study, Phase II: Case studies in Vietnam, Indonesia and Bangladesh

Published: 31/3/2010 | 1884 views
This report is the outcome of a study conducted by NACA to assess the shrimp price trends in Vietnam, Indonesia and Bangladesh from January 2008 to June 2009, updating the previous study Evaluation of the impact of the Indian Ocean Tsunami and US Anti-Dumping Duties on the Shrimp Farming Sector of South and South-East Asia, 2006. The previous study highlighted the need for continuous collection of price data, not only from processors of exported commodities, but also from traders and farmers. A broader collection of price data aims to facilitate a more thorough evaluation of the state of the industry and provide the opportunity for interventions to increase the sustainability of the sector.

This study shows various fluctuations in shrimp prices. Shrimp price trends in Vietnam for most of the sample period showed upward trends for farmers and downward trends for procurement prices for both traders and processors. On the other hand, both the procurement price and resale price of all concerned stakeholders in Bangladesh demonstrated upward trends - particularly during the first half of 2009. Indonesian black tiger shrimp price was considerably stable during the study period, with only minor changes.

Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture

Published: 28/1/2010 | 12769 views

NACA is pleased to announce the release of a new flagship publication, Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture. The stories in this book reflect the unique nature of Asian aquaculture, providing first-time insight into how and why it has become so successful. Overall, the book demonstrates how the resiliency, adaptability, and innovation of small-scale aquaculture farmers have been crucial to this success. It also places aquaculture development in Asia into a wider global context, and describes its relationship to natural systems, social conditions, and economics. The book is unique in its in-depth presentation of primary research on Asian aquaculture, and in demonstrating how aquaculture can have a lasting positive impact on livelihoods, food security, and sustainable development.


Aquaculture Successes in Asia: Contributing to Sustained Development and Poverty Alleviation
Sena S. De Silva and F. Brian Davy

Recent Developments in Rice-fish Culture in China: A Holistic Approach for Livelihood Improvement in Rural Areas
Miao Weimin

Shrimp Farmers in India: Empowering Small-Scale Farmers through a Cluster-Based Approach
N.R. Umesh, A.B. Chandra Mohan, G. Ravibabu, P.A. Padiyar, M.J. Phillips, C.V. Mohan, and B. Vishnu Bhat

Backyard Hatcheries and Small Scale Shrimp and Prawn Farming in Thailand
Hassanai Kongkeo and F. Brian Davy

Cage Fish Culture: An Alternative Livelihood Option for Communities Displaced by Reservoir Impoundment in Kulekhani, Nepal
Tek B. Gurung, Raja M. Mulmi, K.C. Kalyan, G. Wagle, Gagan B. Pradhan, K. Upadhayaya, and Ash K. Rai

Enhancing Rural Farmer Income through Fish Production: Secondary Use of Water Resources in Sri Lanka and Elsewhere
Upali S. Amarasinghe and Thuy T.T. Nguyen

Striped Catfish Aquaculture in Vietnam: A Decade of Unprecedented Development
Nguyen Thanh Phuong and Dang Thi Hoang Oanh

The Genetic Improvement of Farmed Tilapias Project: Impact and Lessons Learned
Belen O. Acosta and Modadugu V. Gupta

The Role of Exotics in Chinese Inland Aquaculture
Jiashou Liu and Zhongjie Li

Synthesis and Lessons Learned
Sena S. De Silva, F. Brian Davy, and Michael J. Phillips

This book will appeal to a wide range of readers. The introduction and conclusion give an excellent general overview of Asian aquaculture, and the individual case studies provide a wealth of new information for specialist readers. Researchers, development workers, and decision-makers, in particular, will be interested in how the Asian experience might be used to strengthen aquaculture development more generally and in other parts of the developing tropics of Latin America and Africa.

Success stories in Asian Aquaculture is edited by by Sena S. De Silva, Director General of the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific, and F. Brian Davy, Senior Fellow at the International Institute for Sustainable Development in Canada. You can order hard copies of the book online from the Springer website.

Economics and Management of Shrimp and Carp Farming in Asia

Published: 19/11/2003 | 2984 views
P. Leung & K.R. Sharma (eds.).

A collection of 16 research papers based on a farm performance survey by the Asian Development Bank and NACA. 240 pages. (1.33 MB)

Presentations from Global Aquaculture Discussion Forum, 3-4 December 2003, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Published: 27/7/2005 | 2141 views
The Bangladesh Shrimp Foundation (BSF) and the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) jointly hosted the first meeting of the Global Aquaculture Forum on the 3rd and 4th December 2003 at Sarina Hotel, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The objective of the forum was to bring stakeholders together to share experiences and ideas on trade in the aquaculture sector, and to seek positive solutions to problems and constraints.

Presentations made in the forum can be downloaded as following:

* Shrimp Trade: Emerging Barriers (245 KB)
M.A. Taslim

* Experience with small-scale shrimp farmer group in Andhra Pradesh, India. (511 KB)
Arun Padiyar, M.J. Phillips

* Adverse Effects of Shrimp Aquaculture, Potential Solutions, Role of Code of conduct, Measure to Ensure Participation of Smallholders, Role of Government, Private Sector and Civil Society (1.4 MB)
Ashraf-ul-Alam Tutu

* Certifying Best Practices for Responsible Aquaculture
Bill More

* Perspectives: Buyers, NGOs and Consumers (437 KB)
Bill More

* Potential constraints on small-scale shrimp farmers in Bangladesh participating in the Shrimp Seal of Quality Certification Programme (342 KB)
Debbie Williams

* SPS Regulation and the Shrimp Industry - Analysis of Impacts (1.1 MB)
A.K. Enamul Haque

* Sustainable Shrimp Farming Issues
George Chamberlain

* Certification and Ecolabels (62 KB)
Jason Clay

* Harnessing Technology for the Farmer: Mission e-Choupal (847 KB)
Kavitha Kumari

* Emerging trade practices in aquaculture: implications for small-scale farmers and an introduction to the forum (1.5 MB)

* Code of Conducts and Good Aquaculture Practices - Experiences from Thailand (203 KB)
Tanin Samalapa

Evaluation of the impact of the tsunami and US anti-dumping duties on shrimp farming (Revised)

Published: 6/11/2006 | 2692 views
This report is the outcome of a study conducted by NACA to assess the impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and of the introduction of US anti-dumping duties on the shrimp farming sectors of countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with special focus on the effect that these unusual events had on shrimp prices and stakeholders? livelihoods. The assessment was conducted by collecting data from a wide range of stakeholders involved with shrimp farming in 3 case countries: 1 affected by the US anti-dumping duties (Vietnam), 1 affected by the Indian Ocean tsunami (Indonesia) and 1 not affected by either event (Bangladesh).

For further information on the study please contact:

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